Bruce R. Ellingwood

Brief Biography: 

Dr. Ellingwood received his undergraduate and graduate education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. From 1975-1986, he held the position of Research Structural Engineer at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology), and led the NBS Structural Engineering group from 1982 - 1986. He joined the Johns Hopkins University in 1986, was appointed Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering in 1990, and was named the Willard and Lillian Hackerman Chair in 1997. He has served on the faculty of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Georgia Tech since 2000, and was Chair of the School from 2000 - 2002. Dr. Ellingwood's main research and professional interests involve the application of probability and statistics to structural engineering. Within the general field of structural reliability, his research has included structural load modeling, studies of performance of structures, development of safety and serviceability criteria for design, studies of abnormal loads, progressive collapse and the response of structures to fires, probabilistic risk analysis and stochastic mechanics. As Administrator of the Secretariat of the American National Standard Committee A58 (now ASCE Standard Committee 7) on Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures from 1977 - 1984, he directed the development of the probability-based load criteria for limit states design that now appear in ASCE Standard 7 on Minimum Design Loads, the AISC Specification, ASCE Standard 16 on LRFD for Engineered Wood Construction, ACI Standard 318, and both national Model Building Codes. Dr. Ellingwood is internationally recognized as an authority on structural load modeling, reliability and risk analysis of engineered facilities, and as a leader in the technical development and implementation of probability based codified design standards for building structures. He has authored nearly 400 papers and reports. He is Editor of Structural Safety, and serves on five other editorial boards. He has held numerous leadership positions in professional societies, and his research and professional service have garnered numerous awards from ASCE (where he has twice received the Norman Medal), AISC and other professional organizations. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Distinguished Member of ASCE and an Inaugural Fellow of the Structural Engineering Institute of ASCE.

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Office Building: 
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Affinity Group / Department: 
Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Materials
Emeritus Faculty
Ph.D., Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972
M.S., Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1969
B.S., Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1968
First Name: 
Job Title: 
Professor Emeritus
Research Interests: 
Structural reliability
Probability-based design
Structural loads
Natural hazards
Load combinations analysis
Abnormal loads and progressive collapse
Probabilistic risk analysis
Publications (Articles): 
Cha, E.J. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2013). “Seismic risk mitigation of building structures: the role of risk aversion.” Structural Safety 40(1):11-19.
Zhang, H., Rasmussen, K.J.R. and Ellingwood, B. R. (2012). “Reliability assessment of steel scaffold shoring systems for concrete formwork.” Engrg. Struct. 36(1):81-89.
Shafieezadeh, A. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2012). “Confidence intervals for reliability indices using likelihood ratio statistics.” Structural Safety 38:48-55.
Cha, E.J. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2012). “Risk-averse decision-making for civil infrastructure exposed to low-probability, high-consequence events.” Reliability Engrg. & System Safety 104(1): 27-35.
Stewart, M.G., Ellingwood, B.R., and Mueller, J. (2011). “Homeland security: a case study in risk aversion for public decision-making.” Int. J. Risk Assessment and Mgt. 15(5/6):367-386.
Xu, G. and Ellingwood, B. (2011). “An Energy-based Partial Pushdown Analysis Procedure for Assessment of Disproportionate Collapse Potential.” J. Constr. Steel Res. 67(3):547-555.
Wang, N., O’Malley, C., Ellingwood, B. and Zureick, A. (2011). “Bridge rating using system reliability assessment I: Assessment and verification by load testing.” J. Bridge Engrg. ASCE 16(6):854-862.
Wang, N., Ellingwood, B. and Zureick, A. (2011). Bridge rating using system reliability assessment II: Improvements to bridge rating practices.” J. Bridge Engrg. ASCE 16(6):863-871.
Xu, G. and Ellingwood, B. (2011). “Probabilistic robustness assessment of pre-Northridge moment-resisting frames.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 137(9): 925-934. (Special issue commemorating 9/11).
Xu, G. and Ellingwood, B. (2011). “Disproportionate collapse performance of partially restrained steel frames with bolted T-stub connections.” Engrg. Struct. 33(1):32-43.
Celik. O.C. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2010). “Seismic fragilities for non-ductile reinforced concrete frames – role of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties.” J. Struct. Safety 32(1):1-12.
Adachi, T. and B. R. Ellingwood (2010). “Comparative assessment of civil infrastructure network performance under probabilistic and scenario earthquakes” J. Infrastructure Systems ASCE 16(1):1-10.
Li, Y., Yin, Y.-J., Ellingwood, B.R. and W. M. Bulleit, W.M. (2010). “Uniform hazard vs. uniform risk bases for performance-based earthquake engineering of light-frame wood construction.” Earthquake Engrg. & Struct. Dyn. 39:1199-1217.
DesRoches, R., Taftali, B. and Ellingwood, B. R. (2010). “Seismic Performance Assessment of Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy Connections. Part I — Analysis and seismic demands.” J. Earthquake Engrg 14(4):471-486.
Ellingwood, B.R., Taftali, B. and DesRoches, R. (2010). “Seismic Performance Assessment of Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy Connections. Part II – Probabilistic seismic demand assessment.” J. Earthquake Engrg 14(5):631-645.
Wang, N., Ellingwood, B.R. and Zureick, A-H. (2010). “Reliability-based evaluation of flexural members strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer composites.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 136(9):1151-1160.
Ellingwood, B.R. and Y. Li (2009). “Counteracting structural loads: treatment in ASCE Standard 7-05.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 135(1):94-97.
Ellingwood, B.R. and K. Kinali (2009). “Quantifying and communicating uncertainty in seismic risk assessment.” Struct. Safety 31(2):179-187.
Adachi, T. and B. R. Ellingwood (2009). “Serviceability of an electrical power transmission system under probabilistically stated seismic hazards: case study for Shelby County, TN.” Struct. and Infrastruct. Engrg. 5(5):343-354.
Adachi, T. and B. R. Ellingwood (2009). “Serviceability assessment of a municipal water system under spatially correlated seismic intensities.” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastruct. Engrg. 24(4):237-248
Li, Y. and B. R. Ellingwood (2009), “Framework for multi-hazard risk assessment and mitigation for wood-frame residential construction.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 135(2):159-168.
Pang, W., D.V. Rosowsky, B.R. Ellingwood and W. Yue (2009), “Seismic fragility analysis and retrofit of conventional one and two-story structures in the Memphis area,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 135(4):262-271.
Ellingwood, B.R. (2009). “Assessment and mitigation of risk from competing low-probability, high-consequence hazards.” Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 9(1):1-8.
Li, Y. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2009). “Risk-based decision-making for multi-hazard mitigation for wood-frame residential construction.” Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 9(1):17-26.
Celik, O.C. and Ellingwood, B.R. (2009). “Seismic Risk Assessment of Gravity Load Designed Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Mid-America Ground Motions.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 135(4):414-424.
Adachi, T. and B. R. Ellingwood (2008). “Serviceability of earthquake-damaged water systems: Effects of electrical power availability and power backup systems on system vulnerability,” Reliability Engrg. and System Safety 93(1):78-88.
Li, Q. and B. R. Ellingwood (2008). “Damage inspection and vulnerability analysis of existing buildings with steel moment-resisting frames,” Engrg. Struct. 30(2):338-351.
Celik, O.C. and B.R. Ellingwood (2008). “Modeling beam-column joints in fragility assessment of gravity load designed reinforced concrete frames,” J. Earthquake Engrg. 12(3):357-381.
Ellingwood, B.R., D.V. Rosowsky and W.C. Pang (2008), “Performance of Light-Frame Wood Residential Construction Subjected to Earthquakes in Regions of Moderate Seismicity,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 134(8):1353-1363.
Ellingwood, B. R. (2008), “Structural reliability and risk assessment and their relevance to performance-based engineering,” Structures and Buildings, Proc., Inst. Civil Engineers, London, UK, 161(SB4):199-207.
Ellingwood, B. R. (2007). “Strategies for mitigating risk to buildings from abnormal load events,” Int. J. of Risk Assessment and Mgt. 7(6/7):828-845.
Li, Q. and B. Ellingwood (2007). “Performance evaluation and damage assessment of steel frame buildings under main shock-aftershock sequences” Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn. 36:405-427.
Li, Y. and B. R. Ellingwood (2007). "Reliability of woodframe residential construction subjected to earthquakes," Structural. Safety 29(4):294-307.
Kinali, K. and B. R. Ellingwood (2007). “Seismic fragility assessment of steel frames for consequence-based engineering: A case study for Memphis, TN.” Engrg. Struct. 29(6):1115-1127
Atkin, A.E., B.R. Ellingwood and B. Kehoe (2007), “Performance-based engineering of constructed facilities,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 133(3): 311-323.
Ellingwood, B.R., O.C. Celik and K. Kinali (2007), Fragility assessment of building structural systems in mid-America,” Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn. 36:1935-1952.
Mori, Y. and B. R. Ellingwood (2006), “Reliability Assessment of RC Walls Degraded by Aggressive Operating Environments,” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastruct. Engrg. 21(3): 157-170.
Li, Y. and B. R. Ellingwood (2006), “Hurricane damage to residential construction in the US: Importance of uncertainty modelling in risk assessment,” Engrg. Struct. 28(7):1009-1018.
Zureick, A.-H., R. M. Bennett and B. R. Ellingwood (2006), “Statistical characterization of FRP composite material properties for structural design,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 132(8):1320-1327.
Ellingwood, Bruce R. (2006), “Mitigating risk from abnormal loads and progressive collapse,” J. Perf. of Constructed Facilities, ASCE 20(11):315-323.
Ellingwood, B.R. (2005), “Risk-informed condition assessment of civil infrastructure: state of practice and research issues” J. Struct. & Infrastruct. Engrg. 1(1):7-18.
Tahakashi, T. and B.R. Ellingwood (2005). “Reliability-based assessment of roofs subjected to extreme snows: value of site-specific data.” Engrg. Struct. 27(1):89-95.
Ellingwood, B. R. and D. O. Dusenberry (2005), “Abnormal loads and progressive collapse,” Computer-aided Civil and Infrastruct. Engrg. 20(5):194-205.
Ellingwood, B. R. (2005), “Load combination requirements for fire-resistant structural design,” J. Soc. Fire Protection Engrg. 15(1):43-61.
Nie, J. and B. R. Ellingwood (2005), “FE-based structural reliability assessment using efficient directional simulation,” J. Engrg. Mech. ASCE 131(3):259-267.
Li, Q. and B. R. Ellingwood (2005), “Structural response and damage assessment by enhanced uncoupled modal response history analysis,” J. Earthquake Engrg., 9(5):719-737.
Ellingwood, B. R. and Y. K. Wen (2005), “Risk-benefit based design decisions for low probability/high consequence earthquake events in Mid-America,” Prog. In Struct. Engrg. and Mat. 7(2):56-70.
Du, S., B. R. Ellingwood and J. V. Cox (2005), “Solution methods and initialization techniques in SFE analysis of structural stability,” Probabilistic Engrg. Mech. 20(2):179-187.
Du, S., B. R. Ellingwood and J. V. Cox (2005), “Initialization strategies in simulation –based SFE eigenvalue analysis,” Computer-aided Civil and Infrastruct. Engrg. 20(5):304-315.
Wen, Y.K. and B. R. Ellingwood (2005), “The role of fragility assessment in consequence-based engineering,” Earthquake Spectra, EERI 21(3):861-877.
Naus, D.J., B. R. Ellingwood and H. L. Graves (2004), “Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity,” Nuclear Engrg. & Des. 228(1-3): 55-72.
Braverman, J.I, C.A. Miller, C.H. Hofmayer, B.R. Ellingwood and D.J. Naus (2004). “Degradation assessment of structures and passive components at nuclear power plants.” Nuclear Engrg. & Des. 228(4):283 – 304.
Nie, J. and B.R. Ellingwood (2004), “A new directional simulation method for system reliability I: Application of deterministic point sets,” Probabilistic Engrg. Mech. 19(4):425-436.
Nie, J. and B.R. Ellingwood (2004), “A new directional simulation method for system reliability II: Application of neural networks, ” Probabilistic Engrg. Mech. 19(4):437-447.
Ellingwood, B.R., D.V. Rosowsky, Y. Li and J.H. Kim (2004), “Fragility assessment of light-frame wood construction subjected to wind and earthquake hazards,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 130(12):1921-1930.
Ellingwood, B.R. (2003), “Toward load and resistance factor design for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures,” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 129(4): 449-458.
Tekie, P.B. and B. R. Ellingwood (2003), “Seismic fragility assessment of concrete gravity dams,” Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn. 32:2221-2240.
Rosowsky, D.V. and B. R. Ellingwood (2002). “Performance-based engineering of wood frame housing: a fragility analysis methodology.” J. Struct. Engrg. ASCE 128(1):32-38.
Ciampoli, M. and B. Ellingwood (2002). "Probabilistic methods for assessing current and future performance of concrete structures in nuclear power plants." Materials and Structures, RILEM 35:3-14
Igusa, T. Buonopane, S.G. and B.R. Ellingwood (2002), “Bayesian analysis of uncertainty for structural engineering applications,” Struct. Safety 24(2):165-186.
McAllister, T.P. and B. R. Ellingwood (2002). “Evaluation of crack growth in miter gate weldments using stochastic fracture mechanics.” Struct. Safety 23(4):445-465.
McAllister, T.P. and B.R. Ellingwood (2001). “Reliability-based condition assessment of welded miter gate structures.” J. Infrastructure Systems ASCE 7(3):95-106.
Song, J. and B.R. Ellingwood (2001). “Risk evaluation of steel frames with welded connections under earthquake.” Struct. Engrg. & Mech. 11(6):663-672.
Sakurai, S. B. Ellingwood and S. Kushiyama (2001). "Probabilistic study of the behavior of steel frames with partially restrained connections.” Engineering Struct. 23(11):1410-1417.
Ellingwood, B. (2001). “Acceptable risk bases for design of structures.” Progress in Struct. Engrg. and Mat. 3(2):170-179.
Ellingwood, B. and P. B. Tekie (2001). “ Fragility analysis of concrete gravity dams.” J. Infrastructure Systems ASCE 7(2):41-48.
Ellingwood, B. (2001). “Earthquake risk for building structures.” Reliability Engrg. & System Safety 74(3):251-262.
Ellingwood, B. (2000). “LRFD: implementing structural reliability in professional practice.” Engrg. Struct. 22(2):106-115.
Nie, J. and Ellingwood, B. (2000). “Directional methods for structural reliability analysis.” Struct. Safety 22(3):233-229.
Elected a Distinguished (Honorary) member of ASCE, 2010
IASSAR Senior Research Prize, International Association for Structural Safety and Reliability, 2009
Nathan M. Newmark Medal, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2006
Lifetime Achievement Award, American Institute of Steel Construction, 2006
Charles E. Schmidt Distinguished Visiting Professor, Florida Atlantic University, 2005
Distinguished Alumnus Award, Civil and Environmental Engineering Alumni Association, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2002
Elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 2001
Walter P. Moore, Jr. Award, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1999
Norman Medal, ASCE, 1983 and 1998
T. R. Higgins Lectureship Award, American Institute of Steel Construction, 1988
L.J. Markwardt Research Prize, Forest Products Research Society, 1988
Moisseiff Award, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1988
State of the Art of Civil Engineering Award, ASCE, 1983 and 1988
Engineering Achievement Award, D.C. Joint Council of Engrg. and Arch. Societies, 1980
U. S. Department of Commerce Silver Medal, 1980
Walter L. Huber Engineering Research Prize, ASCE, 1980